The Hoy family DNA testing
The Hoy family of Easton, PA has two members who have tested positive for M222 which is almost always found in the top part of Ireland and western Scotland. It was discovered by Brian McEvoy of Trinity College Dublin as an STR signature in 2006 and later as an SNP by David Wilson. M222 is associated with some of the leading families of ancient Connaught, Ulster, and possibly Leinster (the isolated circle on the map is right over the ancient capital of the Leinster people, but the family names are lost). Until very recently, there have been no subgroups, identified by other SNPs shared by only some of the M222 men.
Throughout 2014, several companies have offered a test which has allowed dozens of subgroups to be discovered and the process is ongoing. Two companies have especially helped in this work since they are focusing on the DNA of the Isles, primarily Scotland and Ireland. Most of the work has been done by Scotland's DNA, also doing business as Ireland's DNA. They broke the logjam around the dark area in the graphic to the right, centering on Donegal and Tyrone. Dozens of new SNPs have been discovered which belong to men from that area.
Since the Hoys are not from that area, but rather County Louth, we do not carry any of those new SNPs. But a smaller company has filled the gap. The Hoys are lucky that among the people who did not carry any of the new Donegal based SNPs, were two of the most knowledgeable people in this field. Dr. David Wilson, who discovered M222 and Iain Kennedy who has been refining this data from his home in Scotland.
The YSEQ.net company is smaller than the others and does only specific SNPs rather than testing all possible ones as the larger companies do. David and Iain working with YSEQ and volunteer testers, have been able to discover two, smaller branches under M222 that Scotland's DNA did not pick up. Luckily for us, the Hoys carry the SNPs in one of the new, smaller sub-branches. These sub-branches are themselves branching as Iain and David continue their work.
The three subgroups of M222 are identified by the topmost SNP on that branch. An individual is identified by the bottommost SNP in his branch. See the tree of SNPs below right. The branches and number of men in each is:
The Hoys are in the FGC4077 branch which is Ireland and Scotland based. At present, out terminal SNP (the lowest one we carry), is A725. In the graphic at the lower right, the Donegal branch dwarfs the other two, but we are in the middle.
Scotland's (Ireland's) DNA has released a spreadsheet of 2000 participants against 14,000 known SNPs. There are three of these SNPs who have had no matches from among all of the men taking part in this testing. There are other large companies, in particular Family Tree DNA, testing people for this analysis. (I tested with FTDNA, Scotland's DNA, and YSEQ at different times.)
One person has now matched these three unique SNPs and that person is one of the Hoys, so these may be a Hoy (and related families) marker.
Our three known SNPs are in yellow and the three new ones are purple.
The other columns are: position on the Y chromosome, old and new values for the mutation.