Map of Iron Age Ireland
Map of Iron Age Ireland.
The Royal Sites of the Táin Bó Cúailnge of Ancient Ireland

This verse was written in a text of Féineachas ('Brehon Law') in the 8th Century:

Batar trí prímcheinéla i nHére, .i. Féini 7 Ulaith 7 Gáilni .i. Laigin.
There were three primary kinships in Ireland, i.e., the Féini and Ulaidh and Gáilióin, i.e., the Laighin.

These three kinships which have been remembered for two millenia through poems and stories, have been associated in recent times with four ancient Iron Age sites located in the central area of Ireland.

Iron Age Royal Sites of Ireland
  • Rathcroghan - Cruachain of the Connachta, the Féini, located in Connacht and Ulser as the O'Neills
  • Navan Fort - Emhain Macha of the Ulaidh, Men of Ulster
  • Knockaulin - Dún Ailinne of the Laighin, located around Tara
  • Tara - Teamhair na Rí, Sacred to all three kinships

Read about the Royal Sites of Ireland here

Pender’s Census of 1659
Pender’s Census of 1659.
Censuses and lists before Twentieth Century Ireland

Almost all Gaelic manuscripts and all Catholic records were destroyed by the Gall (foreigners) from the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169 until 1782 and the liberal period of Grattan's Parliament.

There are only a few sources of population records before then and no real surviving census until 1901.

Some surviving records of interest to the Hoy families